While paraphrasing and quoting are ideal if you wish to focus on one section of a research article, summarizing is a useful tool if you find the entire source relevant and interesting in the context of your own dissertation. Since paraphrasing entails using the same idea in a different version, you need to cite your work to acknowledge the fact that it is not your idea. Another excellent resource to learn about paraphrasing is the Purdue Online Writing Lab:. The comma and date are missing, and the page number given. Cites credits are placed in your paper to avoid any accusations of plagiarism. For example: There are two problems with this paraphrase. As part of a summary of an article, a chapter, or a book, a writer might include paraphrases of various key points blended with quotations of striking or suggestive phrases as in the following example:.
These are just a few of the possible options: The Declaration of Independence stresses the fundamental equality and inherent rights of all men. Introduce the ethos of the author or original text, 2. This is as it should be; a summary would need to be shorter. When you write a summary, you want to condense the main ideas of an essay, a story, or an article into 100 words or so, using all your own words and not quoting from the text. Begin by writing the introductory part of your paper.
Paragraph C is a final revision based on the draft above. Explanation: This example has been paraphrased properly and is not considered plagiarism. When you include the words or ideas of someone else in your writing without citing these portions of text properly, you risk accusations of plagiarism. They probably decided to paraphrase here to concisely convey the information, and also provide some variety and interest in the text for the reader. One study concluded that wearing a bike helmet can reduce the risk of head injury by 85 percent. Nonetheless, it was able to capture the hopes of young people around the world and provided enjoyment to those of us who listened to or played rock.
In rewriting, it is a twofold process as well as you have to be able to comprehend what you are rewriting before actually getting into the process of paraphrasing. Turning your attention to something else puts distance between yourself and the original passage. You can't paraphrase by just changing one or two words or by substituting synonyms. This means that students need to set time aside to brainstorm, pre write, plan, draft, and then revise, revise, and revise. Writing Tutorial Services, Indiana University. Acceptable Close Paraphrase: As with all cases of partial plagiarism, it is possible to use a close paraphrase with the appropriate attribution and citation style.
When finished, set your draft aside and move on with the rest of your writing, or to some other activity. The writer has neglected to note the page number within the parenthetical citation. Needless to mention, plagiarism is cheating and is penalized harshly by authorities of educational institutes, colleges and universities. The Declaration of Independence asserts the equality of all men, and claims that they have fundamental rights that nobody can violate. Your recollection of the exact words being paraphrased will have faded to some degree and it will be easier to focus on your own language choices and sentence structure. One useful technique is to read the passage carefully several times to identify its main points; then set it aside.
What do I need to do to write a summary successfully? At this point, still not looking at the original, revise and polish your draft. Example Source Text New classical economics. While integrating a quotation in your writing, you must help the reader with the knowledge that a quote is going to follow - you can do this by including the author's name or by referencing his work. However, any must have proper references and ideas of authors of authority in the chosen subject for the work to be considered as well researched. See what we have to offer, check out our services.
Since paraphrasing occurred, quotation marks were not used. New York: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston. Quite literally, taking images from the Web particularly from commercial sources is an offense that could lead to legal action. The second way to avoid plagiarism is with a paraphrase. They report the news objectively, meaning they don't give their opinion of an event.
Reinforcers have to be scheduled carefully, and cues have to be withdrawn gradually so that the new behaviors can be transferred and maintained. An example in a sentence is as follows: The original sentence is as follows: While I know well what you want in life, and truly appreciate that, I wish you would listen to others advice, like Abdul does. At the top of the note card, write a key word or phrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase. This will show the reference of the source of your work whereby there will be no quoting directly the type of quote you are paraphrasing and the quote will also be further explained. This is especially true if you are quoting technical language, terms, or very specific word choices. It depends on the required format. Here's an example of what not to do: The Declaration of Independence says that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights.
If you are writing an explanatory summary, include any transition words you need to guide your reader through your work. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. If you choose to reference someone else, make it clear that your take on things was inspired by someone else. An ideal way to paraphrase is by reading, understanding, making notes and then expressing the idea in your own words. Plagiarism in class results in failure on the plagiarized assignment and may result in failure of the course. In the body of your summary, elaborate on the one sentence summaries, clearly explaining the important content of the reading. Conversely, they will not be as persuaded by emotional stories from individual patients about how a new cancer medication improved the quality of their lives.