In doing good, again, we are unlike others; we make our friends by conferring, not by receiving favors. And it is only the Athenians, who, fearless of consequences, confer their benefits not from calculations of expediency, but in the confidence of liberality. Other History Sourcebooks: Ancient History Sourcebook: Thucydides c. An easy mode of life does not unfit the Athenian courage for valorous deeds. He stated that the soldiers who died gave their lives to protect the city of Athens, its citizens, and its freedom. But instead of listening to him I would have you day by day fix your eyes upon the greatness of Athens, until you become filled with the love of her; and when you are impressed by the spectacle of her glory, reflect that this empire has been acquired by men who knew their duty and had the courage to do it, who in the hour of conflict had the fear of dishonor always present to them, and who, if ever they failed in an enterprise, would not allow their virtues to be lost to their country, but freely gave their lives to her as the fairest offering which they could present at her feast.
The purpose of Lincoln's speech was very similar. These concerns noted, he declares that it is tradition for words to be spoken on such an occasion, so he hesitantly obliges. Pericles was in mourning and wanted to give the dead soldiers and their families and all the people of the city-state the honor and confidence they needed to continue on with the war so he exaggerated, he did not want to dishonor the soldier with his words so he chose to speak of their culture and everything they stood for. He proved it with all of his speech so far. Unfortunately, the war lasted 27 years. How does this compare with other Greek views on the subject? Since the analysis also considers the efficacy of the speech, there is a neo-Aristotelian or classical element to the underlying approach. Two of these things are, the Athenians respect for their warrior class and how the Athenians were exceedingly proud of their city and its customs.
Perhaps more importantly, as members of a representative democracy, we should want to understand how these devices are employed. For myself, I should have thought that the worth which had displayed itself in deeds would be sufficiently rewarded by honors also shown by deeds; such as you now see in this funeral prepared at the people's cost. Part Two: Pericles Moves to a Call to Arms First we will examine the methods Pericles uses to present rhetorically the immediate crisis itself. Pericles was credited with bringing Athens into the Golden Age. Chap 39 We differ from our enemies in military matters. Thucydides and the Tradition of Funeral Speeches at Athens.
Pericles fails to see the contradiction in the culture and in the oration of the Speech he gives about the Athens way of life and this is because he is biased towards the men. This arrangement not only makes the editorial quotient small, but insures that the matter for publication will be of a reasonably high order; and, while an effort will be made to keep closely to the practical, no bar will be placed to contributions from any source bearing on the classics, which the narrow limits of the publication will admit. Abdulaziz Alrediny History Core 102 06 — 05 — 2012 Professor: M. Findings Part 1: Pericles Frames the Moment Pericles does not make an immediate appeal for his people to go to war. But I should have preferred that, when men's deeds have been brave, they should be honored in deed only, and with such an honor as this public funeral, which you are now witnessing. In the Oration, Pericles brought forth certain ideas about Athenian democracy and how its citizens should live their lives in accordance with it.
For a man's counsel cannot have equal weight or worth, when he alone has no children to risk in the general danger. Though strong themes and meanings concerning the building of Ethos, Pathos, and Logos which will be the main focus of this critique can likely be attributed to Pericles, instances of eloquence and enchanting wordplay likely fall to Thucydides. One way of looking at Pericles' ancestor reference could be as a build up to his next point, the role Athens plays to the rest of Greece. This crisis again involved a larger scope involving domestic energy policy and deep water drilling. I have performed it to the best of my ability, and in word, at least, the requirements of the law are now satisfied. To sum up: I say that Athens is the school of Hellas, and that the individual Athenian in his own person seems to have the power of adapting himself to the most varied forms of action with the utmost versatility and grace.
When a man is gone, all are wont to praise him, and should your merit be ever so transcendent, you will still find it difficult not merely to overtake, but even to approach their renown. The address on this occasion was one of Col. Pericles describes that in Athens any man, no matter his station in life, can find a way to strive within society. As always, Thucydides does not offer us clear lessons or instructions, but demands that we consider complicated questions. An analysis of this highly descriptive content yields many conclusions and benefits for the speaker. Of the military exploits by which our various possessions were acquired, or of the energy with which we or our fathers drove back the tide of war, Hellenic or Barbarian, I will not speak; for the tale would be long and is familiar to you.
Pericles believes from reading his Oration that the Athens are better people because of their equally of all in their city state and the freedom they have given their people. This leaves all money in the shape of subscriptions to the paper sacred to the Scholarship Fund. His many public acts while three times mayor of Mound City and also for seven years a member of the board of county commissioners will leave their impression on the community for years to come. To the people of Athens their… 1264 Words 6 Pages Ideals of Democratic Citizenship in Funeral Oration by Pericles When dealing with the extent to which Socrates is a good example for following the ideals of democratic citizenship, a good source to use as a point of comparison to his life is the principles laid out about that citizenship by Pericles in his Funeral Oration. He then goes into describing their democracy and why it is the best for all to follow. New York: The Free Press, 1996.
The dead are laid in the public sepulchre in the Beautiful suburb of the city, in which those who fall in war are always buried; with the exception of those slain at Marathon, who for their singular and extraordinary valour were interred on the spot where they fell. Chap 40 Our city is also to be admired for its cul- tivation of philosophy unmixed with effeminacy. He illustrates a great city-state with no flaws but then continues to describe and speak of women as if they were not human and discrimination against them was normal. And here is the proof: The Lacedaemonians come into Athenian territory not by themselves, but with their whole confederacy following; we go alone into a neighbor's country; and although our opponents are fighting for their homes and we on a foreign soil, we have seldom any difficulty in overcoming them. The intended contribution of this essay is to take such a speech in one of its most complex forms and dissect it in such a way that common threads in modern-day speeches will manifest themselves more clearly and more plainly before its audience. Though not included with Thucydides' translation of Pericles' particular speech, a list of all the fallen was usually recited as a part of the speech, and the bodies of the fallen were cleaned and put on display around a massive memorial to fallen Athenians before burial. Scholars found a written record of this speech.
All the labor involved, except the mechanical labor of printing, is to be a labor of love. The dead are idealised - these are men who knew their duty and had the courage to do it, who made the ultimate sacrifice to their city and fellow-citizens, and who would risk anything but dishonour. On November 19, 1863, Abraham Lincoln delivered this speech amongst the American Civil War as a way to bring honor to those who died during the Battle of Gettysburg. All his neighbors respected him and in all his dealings he was fair and square with everyone. The problem of hotel rooms affects each of us. It is likely the Pericles would have been thoughtful of Athenian moral at this time. The Athenians respected the warrior class and placed them among the top members of their society.
Pericles praises Athens so that people will keep fighting; he praises the sacrifices of the dead so that others will imitate them. Athens and Sparta had entered into open hostilities together in 431 B. His audience is now ready, waiting, and even wanting to hear what they must do. You can find it at. We can now turn to the second major feature in the latter half of the speech, the plea to his people to continue battle, bearing in mind that these two features are highly integrated. Pericles delivered his Funeral Oration at the end of the first year of the Peloponnesian War, which would last for 26 more years. It seemed to them a worthy thing that such an honor should be given at their burial to the dead who have fallen on the field of battle.